Природные энергоносители и углеродные материалы & Natural energy sources and carbon materials
Электронный научный журнал

Технические науки
Synthetic liquid fuel based on renewable raw materials from lignocellulose biomass
Kemalov A.F. 1, Kemalov R.A. 2, Dzhamalov Z.Z. 1

1. Kazan Federal University, Department of high-viscosity oils and natural bitumen
2. Kazan Federal University, Department of high-viscosity oils and natural bitumen, Russian Gas Society


The main driving forces behind the development of biofuels are the volatility of world oil prices, the reliability of energy supplies, global warming and the creation of new opportunities for agriculture. Interest in the commercial production of biofuels for transportation was revived in the mid-1970s when ethanol was produced from sugar cane (Brazil) and corn (USA), subject to a fuel additive requirement that determines the proportion of biofuels to be used for transportation fuels. More than 50 countries have now adopted fuel additive requirements. However, biofuels are still underrepresented in comparison to fossil fuels. This chapter will discuss advances in the production of first, second and third generation biofuels, mainly ethanol from sugar and starch, conventional biodiesel, biogas and biomethane, cellulosic ethanol, synthesis gas, biofuel by pyrolysis and hydrothermal process, hydrogen, and the concept of biorefinery

Keywords: biodiesel, biofuel, biogas, biomass, biofuel, ethanol, hydrogen

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